TAMPA BAY, Florida - Tens of thousands of felony suspects can escape justice simply by crossing a state border because police and prosecutors have decided not to pursue them once they leave the state, a joint investigation by 10 Investigates and USA TODAY finds.
Instead, police routinely allow fugitives wanted for everything from drunken driving to murder to go free, leaving their crimes unpunished, their victims outraged and the public at risk. With no one chasing them, those unwanted fugitives have gone on to rape, kidnap, rob banks, and kill, often as close as in the state next door, the joint investigation found.
The collaboration between 10 Investigates, its news partners at USA TODAY, and dozens of other television stations and newspapers across the country owned by Gannett Corp., identified 186,873 accused felons who may escape justice because they crossed state lines.
In each case, policeor prosecutors told the FBI that they would not attempt to retrieve the accused felons if law enforcement found them in another state, a process known as extradition.
"It's just wrong. It's a mockery of the justice process," said Will Marling, the director of the National Organization for Victim Assistance. "It says to victims that this really isn't that important, because otherwise we'd try to do something about it."
While many felons have relocated to Florida, others have escaped justice following Florida arrests. And no countyslapped the "no extradition" label on more outstanding warrants than Manatee County.
The Manatee County Sheriff's Office indicated 81% of its nearly 1,000 outstanding warrants should not be executed outside of the state of Florida. Of the 10 warrants with violent charges, 70% are labeled "no extraditon." And more than 60% of the county's sex warrants will not be executed outside of the state of Florida.
Manatee Co. Sheriff Brad Steube told 10 Investigates his warrants division tells the FBI it won't extradite most accused felons, but if they find out someone was arrested or pulled over in another state for another offense, they will then consider bringing them back to Florida to face charges.
The risk, however, is law enforcement in other states is told not to hold a suspect, so if he or she iscaught on a minor offense, such as a traffic infraction,a dangerousfelon could be given a second chance to get away and possibly re-commit.
"No doubt in my mind it happens. It happens in our country every day," Steube said, acknowledging the failure to extradite risks more crime.
But Steube also added that the agency's relatively low number of outstanding warrants attests to his commitment to apprehending suspected felons.
State Attorney Ed Brodsky, who represents Manatee,Sarasota, and DeSoto counties, said he had no idea so many warrants were labeled "no extradition." By comparison, neither Sarasota nor DeSoto counties had a single "no extradition" on even non-violent offenders.
Brodsky said he will make sure the status is changed for Manatee Co. suspectsaccused ofviolent and sexual crimes.
"That's a recommendation that I've made to the sheriff's office and they've agreed, and we're going to be getting together to strengthen that loophole," Brodsky said.
The other Bay area county with a number of violent and sexual "no extradition" warrantswas Polk Co., where State Attorney Jerry Hill told 10 Investigates he weighs every warrant decision individually, considering factors like the charges, cost to extradite, and likelihood of conviction.
LOOKUP: Polk Co.'s Outstanding Warrants
Wanted felon Jonathan Aten, who has five felony arrests and three felony convictions, relocated to Michigan after allegedly threatening his now-ex-wife with a shotgun. He has not returned to Florida since the charges were filed, and Hill said its not worth spending taxpayer dollars to extradite or prosecute a suspect when the case isn't a sure conviction.
"What's the point of bringing him back here when the likelihood of success, of winning a jury trial, is remote at best?" Hill asked rhetorically. "I think people expect us to make prudent decisions and not waste their money."
But Aten's ex-wife, Robin Samson, told 10 Investigates that Polk County was contributing toa national problem. She said she told Hill where her ex-husband had moved and where he worked, but the state attorney's officehad no interest in bringing him back to face the charges.
"Just because he's not 'their problem' in Florida," Samson said. "He's going to be somebody else's problem in another state."
Reached by phone, Aten said he was innocent of the charges and was working with an attorney to clear them.
Nationally, the FBI and many police agencies refused to identify who the wanted individuals with "no extradition" status were. But USA TODAY found them anyway, using court records and police databases to track them to suburban cul-de-sacs and county jails across the country. Other findings included:
- Even people wanted for serious crimes get away. The nation's unwanted fugitives include more than 3,300 people accused of sexual assaults, robberies or homicides. They include a man wanted for hacking his roommate's neck with a machete during a fight over two cans of beer, a man who allegedly shot his girlfriend to death, and a man charged with sexually assaulting a bedridden stroke victim.
- Fugitives don't have to go far to escape. In Philadelphia, the hub of a metropolis that spans four states, officials say they won't extradite 93% of the accused felons they listed in the FBI's database. That means even fugitives found in the Camden, NJ jail, whose windows look out on downtown Philadelphia, are often not returned to face the charges. "They're pretty much scot-free here as long as they stay here in New Jersey," said Capt. John Fetzer, the head of a fugitive-tracking squad in Camden.
- For many fugitives, freedom is a license to commit new crimes. Unwanted fugitives killed two New York City police officers in the past decade. Another was charged with shooting a young mother and three teenagers to death in rural Tennessee. Yet another fugitive, wanted for robbery, stomped and kicked 79-year-old Roosevelt Morrow to death during a robbery in his Salem, NJ home.
"That's crazy," Morrow's widow, Callie Morrow, said. "If they had come and got him, he would have been locked up and my husband would still be living."
No one knows exactly how many fugitives are allowed to slip away every year or how many people they harm because few police agencies bother to keep track. But the numbers are almost surely substantial. In Washington, DC alone, for example, one of every six people charged with murder between 2007 and 2011 was already wanted for something else, USA TODAY found after reviewing hundreds of pages of confidential pretrial reports.
Prosecutors and police officials say a cumbersome and costly extradition process leaves them little choice but to let those fugitives go. Because each state is its own sovereign entity, police can't move fugitives from one to another without the permission of both states' governors, a process that can take months.
"It's all a budget decision," National District Attorneys Association Executive Director Scott Burns said. But he said the authorities should nonetheless be reluctant to let so many fugitives get away. "When there's a warrant for somebody's arrest, it should mean something. It should mean we're going to come get you," he said.
That picture is only getting worse. Nationwide, tight budgets are forcing police and prosecutors to chase fewer suspects into other states and narrowing the list of crimes for which they'll extradite.The number of felony warrants marked as not extraditable in the FBI's fugitive database increased more than 31% in the nine months ending in May 2013.
"We have a fixed amount of money and we have to be selective about who we spend it on," said Guilford County, NC Chief Assistant District AttorneyHoward Neumann.
The fugitives USA TODAY tracked down typically knew the police weren't coming for them. Darrell Matthews, who has been wanted for drunken driving in Philadelphia since shortly after he collided with an unmarked police car in 2001, says the police know exactly where to find him - just across the New Jersey state line, often already in jail.
"They had their opportunities to come get me. They don't want me," Matthews said.
To that, Laurie Malone, the deputy district attorney who supervises extradition in Philadelphia, said, "He's right."
Brad Heath and John Kelley III contributed to this report. Read more of their findings on USA TODAY.